Another arousal system, the dopaminergic system, releases dopamine produced by the substantia nigra. The neurons arise in the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain, and projects to the nucleus accumbens, the striatum forebrain, limbic system, and prefrontal cortex. The limbic system is important for control of mood, and the nucleus accumbens signal excitement and arousal. The path terminating in the prefrontal cortex is important in regulating motor movements, especially reward oriented movements.
The serotonergic system has almost all of its serotonergic neurons originating in the raphe nuclei. This system projects to the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. Stimulation of these axons and release of serotonin causes cortical arousal and impacts locomotion and mood.
All of these systems are linked and show similar redundancy. The pathways described are ascending pathways, but there also arousal pathways that descend. One example is the ventrolateral preoptic area, which release GABA reuptake inhibitors, which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. Neurotransmitters of the arousal system, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, work to inhibit the ventrolateral preoptic area.
Eysenck's theory of arousal describes the different natural frequency or arousal states of the brains of people who are introverted versus people who are extroverted. The theory states that the brains of extroverts are naturally less stimulated, so these types have a predisposition to seek out situations and partake in behaviors that will stimulate arousal. Whereas extroverts are naturally under-stimulated and therefore actively engage in arousing situations, introverts are naturally overstimulated and therefore avoid intense arousal. Campbell and Hawley (1982) studied the differences in introverts versus extroverts responses to particular work environments in the library. The study found that introverts were more likely to choose quiet areas with minimal to no noise or people. Extroverts were more likely to choose areas with much activity with more noise and people. Daoussiss and McKelvie's (1986) research showed that introverts performed worse on memory tasks when they were in the presence of music compared to silence. Extroverts were less affected by the presence of music. Similarly, Belojevic, Slepcevic and Jokovljevic (2001) found that introverts had more concentration problems and fatigue in their mental processing when work was coupled with external noise or distracting factors. The level of arousal surrounding the individuals greatly affected their ability to perform tasks and behaviors, with the introverts being more affected than the extroverts, because of each's naturally high and low levels of stimulation, respectively.
Neuroticism or emotional instability and extroversion are two factors of the Big Five Personality Index. These two dimensions of personality describe how a person deals with anxiety-provoking or emotional stimuli as well as how a person behaves and responds to relevant and irrelevant external stimuli in their environment. Neurotics experience tense arousal which is characterized by tension and nervousness. Extroverts experience high energetic arousal which is characterized by vigor and energy. Gray (1981) claimed that extroverts have a higher sensitivity to reward signals than to punishment in comparison to introverts. Reward signals aim to raise the energy levels. Therefore, extroverts typically have a higher energetic arousal because of their greater response to rewards.
Put in terms of the five factor level of personality, choleric people are high in neuroticism and high in extraversion. The choleric react immediately, and the arousal is strong, lasting, and can easily create new excitement about similar situations, ideas, or impressions. Melancholic people are high in neuroticism and low in extraversion (or more introverted). The melancholic are slow to react and it takes time for an impression to be made upon them if any is made at all. However, when aroused by something, melancholics have a deeper and longer lasting reaction, especially when exposed to similar experiences. Sanguine people are low in neuroticism (or more emotionally stable) and high in extraversion. The sanguine are quickly aroused and excited, like the cholerics, but unlike the cholerics, their arousal is shallow, superficial, and shortly leaves them as quickly as it developed. Phlegmatic people are low in neuroticism and low in extraversion. The phlegmatic are slower to react and the arousal is fleeting.
The differences in the internal system levels is the evidence that Eysenck used to explain the differences between the introverted and the extroverted. Ivan Pavlov, the founder of classical conditioning, also partook in temperament studies with animals. Pavlov's findings with animals are consistent with Eysenck's conclusions. In his studies, melancholics produced an inhibitory response to all external stimuli, which holds true that melancholics shut out outside arousal, because they are deeply internally aroused. Pavlov found that cholerics responded to stimuli with aggression and excitement whereas melancholics became depressed and unresponsive. The high neuroticism which characterizes both melancholics and cholerics manifested itself differently in the two types because of the different levels of internal arousal they had.
Although arousal improves memory under most circumstances, there are some considerations. Arousal at learning is associated more with long-term recall and retrieval of information than short-term recall of information. For example, one study found that people could remember arousing words better after one week of learning them than merely two minutes after learning them. Another study found that arousal affects the memory of people in different ways. Eysenck found an association between memory and the arousal of introverts versus extroverts. Higher levels of arousal increased the number of words retrieved by extroverts and decreased the number of words retrieved by introverts.
A person's level of arousal when introduced to stimuli can be indicative of their preferences. One study found that familiar stimuli are often preferred to unfamiliar stimuli. The findings suggested that the exposure to unfamiliar stimuli was correlated to avoidance behaviors. The unfamiliar stimuli may lead to increased arousal and increased avoidance behaviors.
On the contrary, increased arousal can increase approach behaviors as well. People are said to make decisions based on their emotional states. They choose specific options that lead to more favorable emotional states. When a person is aroused, they may find a wider range of events appealing and view decisions as more salient, specifically influencing approach-avoidance conflict. The state of arousal might lead a person to view a decision more positively than they would have in a less aroused state.
The reversal theory accounts for the preference of either high or low arousal in different situations. Both forms of arousal can be pleasant or unpleasant, depending on a person's moods and goals at a specific time. Wundt's and Berlyne's hedonic curve differ from this theory. Both theorists explain a person's arousal potential in terms of their hedonic tone. These individual differences in arousal demonstrate Eysenck's theory that extroverts prefer increased stimulation and arousal, whereas introverts prefer lower stimulation and arousal.
Depression can influence a person's level of arousal by interfering with the right hemisphere's functioning. Arousal in women has been shown to be slowed in the left visual field due to depression, indicating the influence of the right hemisphere.
Arousal and anxiety have a different relationship than arousal and depression. People with anxiety disorders tend to have abnormal and amplified perceptions of arousal. The distorted perceptions of arousal then create fear and distorted perceptions of the self. For example, a person may believe that he or she will get sick from being so nervous about taking an exam. The fear of the arousal of nervousness and how people will perceive this arousal will then contribute to levels of anxiety.
The effects of physiological arousal on cognition cause individuals to be active, attentive, or excited.The term \"physiological\" refers to physiology and concerns the normal functioning of an organism. Physiological arousal refers to features of arousal reflected by physiological reactions, such as escalations in blood pressure and rate of respiration and lessened activity of the gastrointestinal system.These terms are what allow for the effects physiological arousal has on cognition itself.
Physiological comes from physiology which is the study of the functioning of living organisms, animal or plant, and of the functioning of their constituent tissues or cells. This word was first used by the Greeks to describe a philosophical inquiry into the nature of things. The use of the term with specific reference to vital activities of healthy humans, which began in the 16th century, also applicable to many current aspects of physiology.Physiological responses to fight or flight:When the body is initially challenged by a stressor it responds with physiological activation (also known as arousal) of a defense system to deal with the immediate stressor. \"If a stimulus is perceived as a threat, a more intense and prolonged discharge of the locus ceruleus which is the major nor adrenergic nucleus of the brain, giving rise to fibers innervating extensive areas throughout the neuraxis. Also referred as the Neuroaxis, is the axis in the central nervous system. activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. (Thase & Howland 1995)\" (psychologistworld.org, n.d.) The activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to the release of non-epinephrine from nerve endings acting on the heart, blood vessels, respiratory centers, and other sites. The ensuing physiological changes constitute a major part of the acute stress response. Which can often lead to as the fight or flight response.Anticipated behaviors are actions that are foreseen or predicted to happen in a specific situation due to different environmental factors. Furthermore, they are decided by one's past experiences and knowledge. 59ce067264